Drupal is considered a feature complete CMS. Out of the box it provides the ability to create different content types with different formats and templates based upon the type. The core modules can support user blogs, forums, general content, content structured like books and customizable user profiles. It contains a rich and highly customizable roles based security system that allows for granular control of the site and its content.
The platform where you store your data may determine how easy it will be for you to use it. There are many ways to store data, but you need to know who or what will be consuming it.
I've been a user of the web for business for over 20 years and working on web projects for somewhere around 15 and it still amazes me how you're looking for one piece of information and you stumble on something else to satisfy a question that may have been asked in passing.
A Content Management System is also known as CMS and is a web based application that allows an easy way for lay people to manage the content of a complex web site. The CMS will provide a method for the managers of the site to create content without the worry of "breaking" the site. The site is created by a programmer with one or more templates so that a consistent look and feel is maintained throughout.